Private Trust Company – A Curious Hybrid
Attorneys Jim Weller and Alan Ytterberg published a recent article discussing an odd hybrid entity – the “private trust company.” As the authors explain, “Similar to a regulated trust company, an unregulated trust company is an entity formed under state law for the limited purpose of providing trust services to a single family.”
A private trust company is first an entity established under state law. “Most states that authorize private trust companies allow them to be formed as a corporation or a limited liability company.” However, “there is no information available to ascertain the number of unregulated trust companies that have been formed in the U.S.”
By way of history, “U.S. Trust Company (est. 1853), Northern Trust (est. 1889), and Bessemer Trust (est. 1907) were originally formed as private trust companies, but today they are known and respected as public trust companies that provide a wide range of fiduciary and trust services.”
A private trust company is a state-chartered institution that is formed to manage assets for wealthy families into the future. Thus, “it is a state chartered entity that is formed for the express purpose of providing trust and fiduciary services to a single family” and is tied to one or more irrevocable trusts established by the family.
State the authors, “there are a variety of states which promote private trust companies. Most of these states have favorable tax laws, and they have modernized their trust laws. In that regard, Wyoming, Nevada, South Dakota, and Texas are some of the more popular states where wealthy families are chartering private trust companies.”
States have different requirements for physical presence in the jurisdiction, but the requirements are not difficult to satisfy. For example, “Licensed family trust companies in Nevada must have at least one officer who is a Nevada resident, a physical office in Nevada, and “a bank account with a state chartered or national bank having a principal or branch offices in Nevada.”
The authors further explain that, “State banking commissioners have less incentive to subject a private trust company to the same regulatory oversight that a public trust company has because there is no public interest to protect. This distinction is formally recognized in states which permit private trust companies to seek exemption from certain regulatory provisions that apply to trust companies transacting business with the public.”
So, the state sanctions the formation of an entity, accords it the privileges of conducting business and of limited liability, but provides for little if any public or regulatory oversight. “A private trust company must meet minimum capital requirements in order to exercise the fiduciary powers granted to it by the chartering state. These capital requirements vary from state to state. South Dakota has the lowest capital requirement at $200,000.”
The authors add that, “a private trust company must apply for and obtain a charter from the state where it is to be located. Once the charter is granted, the private trust company is subject to the laws and regulations of that state. The lone exception is an unregulated trust company which can be formed in Massachusetts, Nevada, Pennsylvania, Virginia, and Wyoming.”
That’s private justice for the very wealthy in America, which is a distressing topic.